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   Bibliography: Alternatives

Key papers in the development and debate of alternative hypotheses

Anderson, D.L., Phase changes in the upper mantle, Science, 157, 1165-1166 & 1171-1173, 1967.

Anderson, D.L., Y-S. Zhang, and T. Tanimoto, Plume heads, continental lithosphere, flood basalts and tomography, in Magmatism and the causes of continental break-up, edited by B.C. Storey, T. Alabaster, and  R.J. Pankhurst, pp. 99-124, Geological Society Special Publication, 1992.

Anderson, D.L., Komatiites and picrites: evidence that the 'plume' source is depleted, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 128, 303-311, 1994.

Anderson, D.L., The sublithospheric mantle as the source of continental flood basalts; the case against continental lithosphere and plume head reservoirs, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 123, 269-280, 1994.

Anderson, D.L., Lithosphere and flood basalts, Nature, 367, 226, 1994.

Anderson, D.L., Superplumes or supercontinents, Geology, 22, 39-42, 1994.

Anderson, D.L., Lithosphere, asthenosphere and perisphere, Rev. Geophys., 33, 125-149, 1995.

Anderson, D.L., Enriched asthenosphere and depleted plumes, Int. Geol. Rev., 38, 1-21, 1996.

Anderson, D.L., The EDGES of the mantle, in The core-mantle boundary region, edited by M.E. Gurnis, E.K. Wysession, and  B.A. Buffett, pp. 255-271, AGU, Washington, D. C., 1998.

Anderson, D.L., The helium paradoxes, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 95, 4822-4827, 1998.

Anderson, D.L., A model to explain the various paradoxes associated with mantle noble gas geochemistry, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 95, 9087-9092, 1998.

Anderson, D.L., The statistics and distribution of helium in the mantle, Int. Geol. Rev., 42, 289-311, 2000.

Anderson, D.L., The statistics of helium isotopes along the global spreading ridge system and the Central Limit Theorem, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2401-2404, 2000.

Anderson, D.L., The thermal state of the upper mantle; No role for mantle plumes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3623-3626, 2000.

Anderson, D.L., A statistical test of the two reservoir model for helium, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 193, 77-82, 2001.

Anderson, D.L., Top-down tectonics?, Science, 293, 2016-2018, 2001.

Anderson, D. L., The case for irreversible stratification of the mantle, Int. Geol. Rev., 44, 97-116, 2002.

Anderson, D.L., Comment on "Plumes, or plate tectonic processes?" by G. R. Foulger, Astron. Geophys., 44, 2003.

Asimow, P.D., J..E. Dixon, C.H. Langmuir, A hydrous melting and fractionation model for mid-ocean ridge basalts: Application to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Azores, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q01E16, doi:10.1029/2003GC000568

Bailey, D.K., The mid-Zambezi-Luangwa rift and related carbonatite activity,  Geol. Mag., 98, 277-84, 1961.

Bailey, D.K.,  Lithosphere control of continental rift magmatism, J. Geol. Soc. London, 133, 103-106, 1977.

Bailey, D.K.,  The chemical and thermal evolution of rifts, Tectonophysics, 94, 585-597, 1983.

Bailey, D.K., Episodic alkaline igneous activity across Africa:  implications for the causes of continental break-up, In: Eds. Storey et al., 1992,  magmatism and the causes of continental break-up, geol. Soc. Spec. Pub.  68, 91-98, 1992.

Bailey, D.K. and Collier, J.D., Carbonatite-melilitite association in the Italian collision zone and the Ugandan rifted craton: significant common factors, Min. Mag., 64, 675-682, 2000.

Bailey. D.K. and Woolley, A.R., Magnetic quiet periods and stable continental magmatism: can there be a plume dimension?  in Anderson, D.L., Hart, S.R., and Hofmann,A.W., convenors, Plume 2 Conference, Terra Nostra, 3/1995, 15-19, Alfred-Wegener-Stiftung, Bonn, 1995.

Bailey, D.K. and Woolley, A.R., Episodic rift magmatism: the need for a new paradigm in global dynamics, Geolines, 9, 15-20, Czech. Acad. Sci., 1999.

Balyshev S.O., Ivanov A.V. Low-density anomalies in the mantle: ascending plumes and/or heated fossil lithospheric plates? Doklady Earth Sciences, 380, 858-862, 2001.

Best, W.J., L.R. Johnson, and T.V. McEvilly, ScS and the mantle beneath Hawaii, EOS Fall Meeting Supplement, 1147, 1975.

Betz, F.J., and H.H. Hess, The floor of the north Pacific Ocean, Geogr. Rev., 32, 99-116, 1942.

Black, R. and Liégeois, J.P., Cratons, mobile belts, alkaline rocks and continental lithospheric mantle: the Pan-African testimony, J. Geol. Soc. London, 150, 89-98, 1993.

Bonatti, E., Not So Hot "Hot Spots" in the Oceanic Mantle, Science, 250, 107-111, 1990.

Boschi, L., and A.M. Dziewonski, Whole Earth tomography from delay times of P, PcP, and PKP phases: Lateral heterogeneities in the outer core or radial anisotropy in the mantle?, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13,675-13,696, 2000.

Christiansen, R.L., G.R. Foulger, and J.R. Evans, Upper mantle origin of the Yellowstone hotspot, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 114, 1245-1256, 2002.

Clague, D.A., and G.B. Dalrymple, The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, in Volcanism in Hawaii, edited by R.W. Decker, T.L. Wright, and P.H. Stauffer, pp. 5-54, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.

Clouard, V., and A. Bonneville, How many Pacific hotspots are fed by deep-mantle plumes?, Geology, 29, 695-698, 2001.

Cottin, J.Y., J.P. Lorand, P. Agrinier, J.L. Bodinier, and J.P. Liegeois, Isotopic (O, Sr, Nd) and trace element geochemistry of the Laouni layered intrusions (Pan-African belt, Hoggar, Algeria): evidence for post-collisional continental tholeiitic magmas variably contaminated by continental crust, Lithos, 45, 197-222, 1998.

Czamannske, G.K., Demise of the Siberian plume: Paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstruction from the prevolcanic and volcanic records, north-central Siberia, Int. Geol. Rev., 40, 95-115, 1998.

Doglioni C. Geological evidence for a global tectonic polarity, J. Geol. Soc. London, 150, 991-1002, 1993.

Dueker, K.G., and A.F. Sheehan, Mantle discontinuity structure from midpoint stacks of converted P to S waves across the Yellowstone hotspot track, J. geophys. Res., 102, 8313-8327, 1997.

Favela, J., and D.L. Anderson, Extensional tectonics and global volcanism, in Editrice Compositori, edited by E. Boschi, G. Ekstrom, and  A. Morelli, pp. 463-498, Bologna, Italy, 1999.

Fleitout, L., and D.A. Yuen, Secondary convection and the growth of the oceanic lithosphere, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 36, 181-212, 1984.

Foulger, G.R. and D.L. Anderson, A cool model for the Iceland hotspot, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res.,141, 1-22, 2005.

Foulger, G.R., J.H. Natland and D.L. Anderson, A source for Icelandic magmas in remelted Iapetus crust, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res., 141, 23-44, 2005


Foulger, G.R., Plumes, or plate tectonic processes?, Astron. Geophys., 43, 6.19-6.23, 2002.

Foulger, G.R., Z. Du, and B.R. Julian, Icelandic type crust, Geophys. J. Int., 155, 567-590, 2003.

Foulger, G.R., and D.G. Pearson, Is Iceland underlain by a plume in the lower mantle? Seismology and helium isotopes, Geophys. J. Int., 145, F1-F5, 2001.

Foulger, G.R., M.J. Pritchard, B.R. Julian, J.R. Evans, R.M. Allen, G. Nolet, W.J. Morgan, B.H. Bergsson, P. Erlendsson, S. Jakobsdottir, S. Ragnarsson, R. Stefansson, and K. Vogfjord, The seismic anomaly beneath Iceland extends down to the mantle transition zone and no deeper, Geophys. J. Int., 142, F1-F5, 2000.

Foulger, G.R., M.J. Pritchard, B.R. Julian, J.R. Evans, R.M. Allen, G. Nolet, W.J. Morgan, B.H. Bergsson, P. Erlendsson, S. Jakobsdottir, S. Ragnarsson, R. Stefansson, and K. Vogfjord, Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle, Geophys. J. Int., 146, 504-530, 2001.

Green, D.H., Composition of basaltic magmas as indicators of origin: application to oceanic volcanism, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Series A, 267, 707-725, 1971.

Green, D.H., T.J. Falloon, S.M. Eggins, and G.M. Yaxley, Primary magmas and mantle temperatures, Eur. J. Min, 13, 437-451, 2001.

Gu, Y.J., and A.M. Dziewonski, Variations in thickness of the upper mantle transition zone, in Long-term Observations in the Oceans, Proceedings of the OHP/ION Joint Symposium, Japan, January 21-27, 2001.

Gu, Y., A.M. Dziewonski, S. Weijia, and G. Ekstrom, Models of the mantle shear velocity and discontinuities in the pattern of lateral heterogeneities, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 11,169-11,199, 2001.

Gurnis, M., Stirring and mixing in the mantle by plate-scale flow: large persistent blobs and long tendrils coexist, Geophys. Res. Lett., 91, 11,407-11,419, 1986.

Gurnis, M., and G.F. Davies, The effect of depth-dependent viscosity on convective mixing in the mantle and the possible survival of primitive mantle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 13, 541-544, 1986.

Gurnis, M., and G.F. Davies, Mixing in numerical models of mantle convection incorporating plate kinematics, J. geophys. Res., 91, 6375-6395, 1986.

Hamilton, W., The Closed Upper-Mantle Circulation of Plate Tectonics, in Plate Boundary Zones, edited by S. Stein, and  J.T. Freymueller, DOI: 10/1029/030GD21, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002.

Hamilton, W.B., An Alternative Earth, GSA Today, 13, 4-12, 2003.

Hamilton, W. B., Plumeless Venus preserves an ancient impact-accretionary surface, in Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, edited by G. R. Foulger, J.H. Natland, D.C. Presnall and D.L. Anderson, pp. 781-814, Geological Society of America, 2005.

Hieronymus, C. F. & Bercovici, D. Discrete alternating hotspot islands formed by interaction of magma transport and lithospheric flexure. Nature 397, 604-607, 1999.

Hieronymus, C. F. & Bercovici, D. Non-hotspot formation of volcanic chains: control of tectonic and flexural stresses on magma transport. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 181, 539-554, 2000.

Humphreys, E.D., K.G. Dueker, D.L. Schutt, and R.B. Smith, Beneath Yellowstone; evaluating plume and nonplume models using teleseismic images of the upper mantle, GSA Today, 10, 1-7, 2000.

Iyer, H.M., J.R. Evans, G. Zandt, R.M. Stewart, J.M. Coakley, and J.N. Roloff, A deep low-velocity body under the Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming: Delineation using teleseismic P-wave residuals and tectonic interpretation: Summary, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 92, 792-798, 1981.

Jackson, E.D., and H.R. Shaw, Stress fields in central portions of the Pacific plate: delineated in time by linear volcanic chains, J. geophys. Res., 80, 1861-1874, 1975.

Jackson, E.D., H.R. Shaw, and K.E. Barger, Calculated geochronology and stress field orientations along the Hawaiian chain, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 26, 145-155, 1975.

Jackson, E.D., and T.L. Wright, Xenoliths in the Honolulu volcanic series, Hawaii, J. Petrol., 11, 405-430, 1980.

Jacoby, W.R., Instability in the upper mantle and global plate movements, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 5671-5680, 1970.

Katzman R., L. Zhao and T. Jordan, High-resolution, two-dimensional vertical tomography of the central Pacific using ScS reverberations and frequency-dependent travel times, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 17,933-17,971, 1998.

Kaula, W.M., Minimal upper mantle temperature variations consistent with observed heat flow and plate velocities, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10,323-10,332, 1983

Kaula, W.M., Material properties for mantle convection consistent with observed surface fields, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 7031-7044, 1980.

King, S.D., and D.L. Anderson, An alternative mechanism of flood basalt formation, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 136, 269-279, 1995.

King, S.D., and D.L. Anderson, Edge-driven convection, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 160, 289-296, 1998.

King, S.D., and J. Ritsema, African hot spot volcanism: Small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons, Science, 290, 1137-1140, 2000.

Koppers, A.A.P., J.P. Morgan, J.W. Morgan, and H. Staudigel, Testing the fixed hotspot hypothesis using Ar-40/Ar-39 age progressions along seamount trails, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 185, 237-252, 2001


McDougall, I., Volcanic island chains and sea-floor spreading, Nature, 230, 141-144, 1971.

McHone, J.G., Constraints on the mantle plume model for Mesozoic alkaline intrusions in northeastern North America, Can. Min., 34, 325-334, 1996.

McHone, J.G., Comment on Opening of the central Atlantic and asymmetric mantle upwelling phenomena: Implications for long-lived magmatism in western North Africa and Europe, Geology, 26, 282, 1998.

McHone, J.G., Non-plume magmatism and tectonics during the opening of the central Atlantic ocean, Tectonophysics, 316, 287-296, 2000.

McNutt, M., A cold, hard look at hotspots, in Proceedings of the Plume 3 Conference, Hawaii, 2000.

McNutt, M.K., Superswells, Rev. Geophys., 36, 311-344, 1998.

McNutt, M.K., and K.M. Fischer, The south Pacific superswell, in Seamounts, Islands, and Atolls, edited by B.H. Keating, P. Fryer, R. Batiza, and  G. Boehlert, pp. 25-34, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1987.

Meibom, A., D.L. Anderson, N.H. Sleep, R. Frei, C.P. Chamberlain, M.T. Hren, and J.L. Wooden, Are high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components?, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 208, 197-204, 2003.

Meibom, A. and D. L. Anderson, The statistical upper-mantle assemblage, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 217, 123-139, 2003.

Molnar, P., and T. Atwater, Relative motion of hot spots in the mantle, Nature, 246, 288-291, 1973.

Molnar, P., and J.M. Stock, Relative motions of hotspots in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans since late Cretaceous time, Nature, 327, 587-591, 1987.

Moreau, C., J.-M. Regnoult, B. Deruelle, and B. Robineau, A new tectonic model for the Cameroon line, central Africa, Tectonophysics, 141, 317-334, 1987.

Natland, J.H., Natland, J.H., Progression of volcanism in the Samoan linear volcanic chain, in The Jackson Volume, edited by A.J. Irving, and  M. Dungan, pp. 709-735, 1980.

Natland, J.H., Partial melting of a lithologically heterogeneous mantle: Inferences from crystallization histories of magnesian abyssal tholeiites from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone, in Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., edited by A.D. Saunders, and  M. Norry, pp. 41-77, Geological Society of London, 1989.

Natland, J.H., Capture of mantle helium by growing olivine phenocrysts in picritic basalts from the Juan Fernandez Islands, SE Pacific, J. Pet., in press, 2003.

Nguyen, H., M.F.J. Flower, and R.W. Carlson, Major, trace element, and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: Interaction of hydrous EM1-rich asthenosphere with thinned Eurasian lithosphere, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 4329-4351, 1996.

O'Hara, M.J., Upper mantle melting from the bottom - the source of magmatism and the driving force of global tectonics, J. Earth Sciences Leeds, 8, 219-224, 1972.

O'Hara, M.J., Non-primary magmas and dubious mantle plume beneath Iceland, Nature, 243, 507-508, 1973.

O'Hara, M.J., Is there an Icelandic mantle plume?, Nature, 253, 708-710, 1975.

Richter, F.M., Convection and the large-scale circulation of the mantle, J. geophys. Res., 78, 8735-8745, 1973.

Richter, F.M., and B. Parsons, On the interaction of two modes of convection in the mantle, J. geophys. Res., 80, 2529-2541, 1975.

Ritsema, J., H.J. van Heijst, and J.H. Woodhouse, Complex shear wave velocity structure imaged beneath Africa and Iceland, Science, 286, 1925-1928, 1999.

Runcorn, S.K., On the forces not moving the plates, Tectonophysics, 21, 197-202, 1974.

Sandwell, D.T., and M.L. Renkin, Compensation of swells and plateaus in the north Pacific: no direct evidence for mantle convection, J. geophys. Res., 93, 2775-2783, 1988.

Sandwell, D.T., E.L. Winterer, J. Mammerickx, R.A. Duncan, M.A. Lynch, D.A. Levitt, and C.L. Johnson, Evidence for diffuse extension of the Pacific plate from Pukapuka ridges and cross-grain gravity lineations, J. geophys. Res., 100, 15,087-15,099, 1995.

Self, S., T. Thordarson, and L. Keszthelyi, Emplacement of continental flood basalt lava flows, in Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic, and Planetary Flood Volcanism, edited by J.J. Mahoney, and  M.F. Coffin, pp. 381-410, AGU, 1997.

Shaw, H.R., Mantle convection and volcanic periodicity in the Pacific; evidence from Hawaii: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 84, 1505–1526, 1973.

Shaw, H.R., and E.D. Jackson, Linear island chains in the Pacific: Result of thermal plumes or gravitational anchors?, J. geophys. Res., 78, 8634-8652, 1973.

Shaw, H.R., and E.D. Jackson, Oceanic Islands, in McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, 1974, 292-295, 1975.

Shaw, H.R., The fracture mechanisms of magma transport from the mantle to the surface, in Hargraves, R.B., (ed.), The Physics of Magmatic Processes, Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 201-264, 1980.

Shaw, H.R., Jackson, E.D., and Bargar, K.E., Volcanic periodicity along the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, Am. J. Sci., 280-A, 667-708, 1980.

Sheth, H.C., Flood basalts and large igneous provinces from deep mantle plumes: fact, fiction, and fallacy, Tectonophysics, 311, 1-29, 1999.

Sheth, H.C., The timing of crustal extension, diking, and the eruption of the Deccan flood basalts, Int. Geol. Rev., 42, 1007-1016, 2000.

Sheth, H.C., I.S. Torres-Alvarado, and S.P. Verma, Beyond subduction and plumes: A unified tectonic-petrogenetic model for the Mexican volcanic belt, Int. Geol. Rev., 42, 1116-1132, 2000.

Sheth, H. C., A historical approach to continental flood basalt volcanism: insights into pre-volcanic rifting, sedimentation, and early alkaline magmatism, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 168, 19-26, 1999.

Sleep, N.H., Segregation of magma from a mostly crystalline mush, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 85, 1225-1232, 1974.

Sleep, N.H., Tapping of magmas from ubiquitous mantle heterogeneities: an alternative to mantle plumes?, J. geophys. Res., 89, 10,029-10,041, 1984.

Smith, A.D., Back-arc convection model for Columbia River basalt genesis, Tectonophysics, 207, 269-285, 1992.

Smith, A.D., The continental mantle as a source for hotspot volcanism, Terra Nova, 5, 452-460, 1993.

Smith, A.D., The Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic record in abyssal tholeiites from the Gulf of California region, western Mexico: No evidence for a Gulf Mouth plume, Int. Geol. Rev., 41, 921-931, 1999.

Smith, A.D., Critical evaluation of Re-Os and Pt-Os isotopic evidence on the origin of intraplate volcanism, J. Geodyn., 36, 469-484, 2003.

Smith, A.D., Intraplate volcanism: Concepts, problems and proofs, Astron. Geophys., 44, 2.2-2.3, 2003.

Smith, A.D., A re-appraisal of stress field and convective roll models for the origin and distribution of Cretaceous to Recent intraplate volcanism in the Pacific basin, Int. Geol. Rev., 45, 287-302, 2003.

Smith, A.D., Intraplate volcanism: concepts, problems and proofs, Astron. Geophys., 44, 2.8 -2.9, 2003.

Smith, A.D., and C. Lewis, Differential rotation of lithosphere and mantle and the driving forces of plate tectonics, J. Geodyn., 28, 97-116, 1999.

Smith, A.D., and C. Lewis, The planet beyond the plume hypothesis, Earth-Science Reviews, 48, 135-182, 1999.

Smith, R.B., R.T. Shuey, R.O. Friedline, R.M. Otis, and L.B. Alley, Yellowstone hotspot: New magnetic and seismic evidence, Geology, 2, 451-455, 1974.

Stein, C., and D. Abbott, Heat-flow constraints on the south-Pacific superswell, J. geophys. Res., 96, 16,083-16,100, 1991.

Stein, C., and S. Stein, Sea floor heat flow near Iceland and implications for a mantle plume, Astron. Geophys., 44, 1.8-1.10, 2003.

Stein, C.A., and S. Stein, A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat-flow with lithospheric age, Nature, 359, 123-129, 1992.

Stein, C.A., and S. Stein, Constraints on Pacific midplate swells from global depth-age and heat flow-age models, in The Mesozoic Pacific: Geology, Tectonics, and Volcanism, pp. 53-76, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1993.

Sykes, L. and Sbar, M., Intraplate earthquakes, lithospheric stresses and the driving mechanism of plate tectonics, Nature, 245, 298, 1973.

Sykes, L.R., Intraplate seismicity, reactivation of preexisting zones of weakness, alkaline magmatism and other tectonism post-dating continental fragmentation, Rev. Geophys. Space Physics, 16, 621-688, 1978.

Tack, L., M.T.D. Wingate, J.P. Liegeois, M. Fernandez-Alonso, and A. Debond, Early Neoproterozoic magmatism (1000-910 Ma) of the Zadinian and Mayumbian Groups (Bas-Congo): onset of Rodinia rifting at the western edge of the Congo craton, Precamb. Res., 110, 277-306, 2001.

Tanton, L.T.E., and B.H. Hager, Melt intrusion as a trigger for lithospheric foundering and the eruption of the Siberian flood basalts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3937-3940, 2000.

Tozer, D.C., Thermal plumes in the Earth's mantle, Nature, 244, 398-400, 1973.

Vogt, P.R., Volcano spacing, fracture, and thickness of the lithosphere, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 21, 235-252, 1974.

Vogt, P.R., The Iceland mantle plume:  Status of the hypothesis after a decade of new work, in Structure and Development of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge, edited by M.H.P. Bott, Saxov, Talwani, and  Thiede, pp. 191-216, Plenum Press, New York, 1983.

Vogt, P.R., Bermuda and Appalachian-Labrador rises: Common non-hotspot processes?, Geology, 19, 41-44, 1991.

von Herzen, R.P., M.J. Cordery, R.S. Detrick, and C. Fang, Heat-flow and the thermal origin of hot spot swells - the Hawaiian swell revisited, J. geophys. Res., 94, 13,783-13,799, 1989.

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last updated 28th December, 2010