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   Cracks & stress

Evidently Humpty Dumpty was very angry.

“It is a – most – provoking – thing,” he said at last, “when a person doesn’t know a crack from a plume.

Crack and Stress Mechanisms for Intraplate Magmatism: A Bibliography

“When I say plume,” Humpty Dumpty said, “it means just what I choose it to mean.”

Don L. Anderson

Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125


  • Abers, G. A., Parsons, B. & Weissel, J. K. Seamount abundances and distributions in the southeast Pacific, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 87, 137-151, 1988.
  • Atkinson, B. K. Fracture Mechanics of Rock, Academic Press, London, 1987.
  • Bergman, E. A. & Solomon, S. C., Source mechanisms of earthquakes near mid-ocean ridges from body waveform inversion, implications for the early evolution of oceanic lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 11,415-11,444, 1984.
  • Boley, B. & Weiner, J. H., Theory of Thermal Stress, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960.
  • Bratt, S. R., Bergman, E. A. & Solomon, S. C. Thermoelastic stress: How important as a cause of earthquakes in young lithosphere? J. Geophys. Res., 90, 10,249-10,260, 1985.
  • Buck, W. R. & Parmentier, E. M. Convection beneath young oceanic lithosphere: Implications for thermal structure and gravity, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 1961-1974, 1986.
  • Clague, D.A., and G.B. Dalrymple, Tectonics, geochronology and origin of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, in The Eastern Pacific Ocean and Hawaii, edited by E.L. Winterer, D.M. Hussong, and R.W. Decker, pp. 188-217, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, 1989.
  • Dunbar, J. & Sandwell, D. T. A boudinage model for crossgrain lineations, Eos Trans. AGU, 69, 1429, 1988.
  • Fialko, Y. A. On origin of near-axis volcanism and faulting at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges, Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett., 190, 31-39, 2001.
  • Fialko, Y. A. & Rubin, A. M. Numerical simulation of high pressure rock tensile fracture experiments: Evidence of an increase in fracture energy with pressure? J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5231-5242, 1997.
  • Fleitout, L., Dalloubeix, C. & Moriceau, C. Small-wavelength geoid and topography anomalies in the South Atlantic Ocean - a clue to new hot-spot tracks and lithospheric deformation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, 637-640, 1989.
  • Gans, K. D., Wilson, D. S. & Macdonald, K. C. Pacific plate gravity lineaments: Extension or thermal contraction? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems in press, 2003.
  • Goetze, C. & Evans, B. Stress and temperature in the bending lithosphere as constrained by experimental rock mechanics, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 59, 463-478, 1979.
  • Goodwillie, A. M. & Parsons, B. Placing bounds on lithospheric deformation in the central Pacific Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 111, 123-139, 1992.
  • Goodwillie, A. M. & Watts, A. B. An altimetric and bathymetric study of elastic thickness in the central Pacific Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 118, 311-326, 1993.
  • Haxby, W. F. & Weissel, J. K. Evidence for small-scale mantle convection from Seasat altimeter data, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 3507-3520, 1986.
  • Husseini, M. I. Energy balance for formation along a fault, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 49, 699-714, 1977.
  • Jackson, E.D., and H.R. Shaw, Stress fields in central portions of the Pacific plate: delineated in time by linear volcanic chains, J. geophys. Res., 80, 1861-1874, 1975.
  • Jackson, E.D., H.R. Shaw, and K.E. Barger, Calculated geochronology and stress field orientations along the Hawaiian chain, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 26, 145-155, 1975.
  • Janney, P. E., Macdougall, J. D., Natland, J. H. & Lynch, M. A. Geochemical evidence from Pukapuka volcanic ridge system for a shallow enriched mantle domain beneath the South Pacific Superswell, Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett., 181, 47-60, 2000.
  • Lynch, M. A. Linear ridge groups: Evidence for tensional cracking in the Pacific Plate, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 29,321-29,333, 1999.
  • Maus, S., Green, C. M. & Fairhead, J. D. Improved ocean-geoid resolution from retracked ERS-1 satellite altimeter waveforms, Geophys. J. Int., 134, 243-253, 1998.
  • Parmentier, E. M. & Haxby, W. F. Thermal stress in the oceanic lithosphere: Evidence from geoid anomalies at fracture zones, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 7193-7204, 1986.
  • Parsons, B. & Sclater, J. G. An analysis of the variation of the ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow with age, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 803-827, 1977.
  • Parsons, T. & Thompson, G. A. The role of magma overpressure in suppressing earthquakes and topography: Worldwide examples, Science, 253, 1300-1302, 1991.
  • Ricard, Y. & Froidevaux, C. Stretching instabilities and lithospheric boudinage, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 8314-8324, 1986.
  • Richter, F. M. & Parsons, B. On the interaction of two scales of convection in the mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 2529-2541, 1975.
  • Sandwell, D. T. et al. Evidence for diffuse extension of the Pacific Plate from Puka-puka ridges and Cross-grain gravity lineations, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 15,087-15,099, 1995.
  • Sandwell, D. T. Thermal Stress and the Spacings of Transform Faults, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 6405-6417, 1986.
  • Sandwell, D. T. & Smith, W. H. F. Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS-1 satellite altimetry, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 10,039-10,054, 1997.
  • Scholz, C. H., The mechanics of earthquakes and faulting, Cambidge Univ. Press, New York, 2002.
  • Searle, R. C., Francheteau, J. & Cornaglia, B. New Observations on mid-plate volcanism and the tectonic history of the Pacific plate, Tahiti to Easter Microplate, Earth. Planet. Scis. Lett., 131, 395-421, 1995.
  • Turcotte, D. L. Are Transform Faults Thermal Contraction Cracks? J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2573-2577, 1974.
  • Wessel, P. Thermal stress and the bimodal distribution of elastic thickness estimates of the oceanic lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 14,177-14,193, 1992.
  • Winterer, E. L. & Sandwell, D. T. Evidence from en-echelon cross-grain ridges for tensional cracks in the Pacific Plate, Nature 329, 534-537,1987.
  • Woo, T. C. Thermal stress problems in glass, J. Applied Physics, 39, 2082-2087, 1968.
    Weins, D. A. & Stein, S. Intraplate seismicity and stress in young oceanic lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 11,442-11,464, 1984.

Dikes Control Magmatism

  • Favela, J. & D.L. Anderson, Extensional tectonics and global volcanism, in Editrice Compositori, edited by E. Boschi, G. Ekstrom, and A. Morelli, pp. 463-498, Bologna, Italy, 1999.
  • Hieronymus, C.F., and D. Bercovici, Discrete alternating hotspot islands formed by interaction of magma transport and lithospheric flexure, Nature, 397, 604-607, 1999.
  • Tanton, L.T.E., and B.H. Hager, Melt intrusion as a trigger for lithospheric foundering and the eruption of the Siberian flood basalts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3937-3940, 2000.

Stress Controls Magmatism

  • Acton, G. D., S. Stein, and J. F. Engeln, Block rotation and continental extension in Afar: a comparison to oceanic microplate systems, Tectonics, 10, 501-526, 1991.
  • Anderson-Fontana, S., J. F. Engeln, P. Lundgren, R. L. Larson, and S. Stein, Tectonics and evolution of the Juan Fernandez microplate at the Pacific-Nazca-Antarctic triple junction, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 2005-2018, 1986.
  • Anderson, D.L., Factors Controlling Giant Radiating Dike Swarms,
  • Duncan, R. A., Hooper, P. R., Rehacek, J., Marsh, J. S., and Duncan, A. R., The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18,127-18,138, 1997.
  • Fedorenko, A., Paleotectonics of Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic volcanism in the Noril'sk region, and paleotectonic controls on the distribution of Ni-bearing intrusions, in Pogrebitsky, Yu. Ye., ed., Geology and Ore Deposits of the Taymyr-Nortland Folding Belt: NIIGA, Leningrad, 16-23 (in Russian), 1979.
  • Fedorenko, A., Tectonic control of magmatism and regularities of Ni-bearing localities on the northwestern Siberian platform, Soviet Geol. Geophys., 32, 41-47, 1991.
  • Fedorenko, A., Lightfoot, P. C., Naldrett, A. J., Czamanske, G. K., Hawkesworth, C. J., Wooden, J. L., and Ebel, D. S., 1996, Petrogenesis of the Siberian flood-basalt sequence at Noril'sk, Int. Geol. Rev., 38, 99-135.
  • McNutt, M. K., D. W. Caress, J. Reynolds, K. A. Jordahl, R. A. Duncan, Failure of plume theory to explain midplate volcanism in the southern Austral islands, Nature, 389, 479, 1997.
  • Miller, S. A., A. Nur, Permeability as a toggle switch in fluid-controlled crustal processes, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 183, 133, 2000.
  • Moreau, C., Regnoult, J.-M., Déruelle, B., and Robineau, B., A new tectonic model for the Cameroon line, central Africa, Tectonophysics, 141, 317-334, 1987.
  • Nakamura, K., Volcanoes as possible indicators of tectonic stress orientation - principle and proposal, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res., 2, 1-16, 1977.
  • Rona, P., E. Richardson, Early Cenozoic global plate reorganization, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 40, 1-11, 1978.
  • Rubin, A., Propagation of Magma-filled cracks, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 43, 287-336, 1995.
  • Sykes, L.R., Intraplate seismicity, reactivation of preexisting zones of weakness, alkaline magmatism, and other tectonism post-dating continental fragmentation, Rev. Geophys. Space Physics, 16, 621-688, 1978.

Tectonic Explanations of Continental Flood Basalts

  • Bailey, D. K., Episodic alkaline igneous activity across Africa: implications for the causes of continental break-up, in Storey, B. C., Alabaster, T., and Pankhurst, R. J., eds., Magmatism and the Causes of Continental Break-up, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub., 68, 91-98, 1992.
  • Burke, K. C., The African plate, S. Afr. J. Geol., 99, 341-409, 1996.
  • Bailey. D.K. and Woolley, A.R., Magnetic quiet periods and stable continental magmatism: can there be a plume dimension? in Anderson, D.L., Hart, S.R., and Hofmann, A.W., Convenors, Plume 2, Terra Nostra, 3/1995, 15-19, Alfred-Wegener-Stiftung, Bonn, 1995.
  • Czamanske, G. K., Gurevich, A. B., Fedorenko, V., and Simonov, O., Demise of the Siberian plume: paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstruction from the prevolcanic and volcanic records, North-Central Siberia, Int. Geol. Rev., 40, 95-115, 1998.
  • McHone, J.G., Volatile emissions of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province basalts: Mass assumptions and environmental consequences, in Hames, W.E., McHone, J.G., Renne, P.R., and Ruppel, C., editors, The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, American Geophysical Union, Geopysical Monograph 136, p. 241-254, 2002,
  • McHone, J.G., Non-plume magmatism and tectonics during the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, Tectonophysics, 316, 287-296, 2000.
  • McHone, J.G., Comment on Opening of the central Atlantic and asymmetric mantle upwelling phenomena: Implications for long-lived magmatism in western North Africa and Europe, Geology, 26, 282, 1998.
  • McHone, J.G., 1996, Constraints on the mantle plume model for Mesozoic alkaline intrusions in northeastern North America, Canadian Mineral, 34, 325-334.
  • McHone, J.G., Broad-terrane Jurassic flood basalts across northeastern North America, Geology, 24, 319-322, 1996.
  • McHone, J.G. and Shake, S.N., Structural control of Mesozoic magmatism in New England, in Mason, R., ed., Basement Tectonics 7, Boston, Kluwer Academic, 399-407, 1992.
  • McHone, J.G., Tectonic and paleostress patterns of Mesozoic intrusions in eastern North America, in Manspeizer, W.R., ed., Triassic-Jurassic Rifting: Continental Breakup and the Origin of the Atlantic Ocean and Passive Margins, Part B: New York, Elsevier, 607-619, 1988.
  • McHone, J.G. and Butler, J.R., Mesozoic igneous provinces of New England and the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 95, 757-765, 1984.
  • McHone, J.G., Mesozoic igneous rocks of northern New England and adjacent Quebec, Geol. Soc. Am., Map and Chart Series MC-49, scale 1:690,000, 5 p. + text, 1984.
  • Sheth, H. C., A historical approach to continental flood basalt volcanism: insights into pre-volcanic rifting, sedimentation, and early alkaline magmatism, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 168, 19-26, 1999.
  • Sheth, H. C., Flood basalts and large igneous provinces from deep mantle plumes: fact, fiction, and fallacy, Tectonophysics, 311, 1-29, 1999.
  • Sheth, H. C., The timing of crustal extension, diking, and the eruption of the Deccan flood basalts. Int. Geol. Rev., 42, 1007-1016, 2000.
  • Smith, A. D., The continental mantle as a source for hotspot volcanism, Terra Nova, 5, 452-460, 1993.
  • Smith, A. D., Lewis, C., 1999. The planet beyond the plume hypothesis, Earth Sci. Rev., 42, 135-182.
last updated 20th January, 2004