Roadmap | The review process | Home
   Recycled crust
Recycled crust controls contrasting source compositions of Mesozoic and Cenozoic basalts in the North China Craton

Yongsheng Liu1,2  Shan Gao2  Peter B. Kelemen3  & Wenliang Xu4

1State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes & Mineral Resources, Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China ( or

2State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China

3Dept. of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, NY 10964-8000, USA

4College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China

Click here to download a PDF version of this webpage


Mesozoic and Cenozoic basalts of varying ages are widespread in the North China Craton. Mesozoic basalts with ages > 110 Ma are characterized by superchondritic Nb/Ta ratios (20.1 ± 0.3 (2σ)) and low Nb and Ta contents. Low Nb/Ta ratios (15.4 ± 0.3 (2σ)) and high Nb and Ta contents characterize the < 110 Ma basalts. Both the > 110 Ma and < 110 Ma basalts have Fe/Mn ratios higher than basaltic melt formed by partial melting of peridotite with the same MgO and CaO contents. The > 110 Ma basalts have island-arc-type trace-element patterns (i.e., depletion in Nb and Ta), whereas OIB-type trace-element patterns (e.g., no depletion in Nb and Ta) are characteristic of the < 110 Ma basalts. Based on ΔFe/Mn values for olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and garnet, high Fe/Mn ratios and negative correlations of Fe/Mn with Yb (Y) of the < 110 Ma basalts suggest clinopyroxene/garnet-rich mantle sources. The lower Fe/Mn ratios and positive correlations of Fe/Mn with Y and Yb in the > 110 Ma basalts suggest orthopyroxene/garnet-rich mantle sources.

Combining these data with Sr-Nd isotopes, we present a conceptual model to explain the contrasting geochemical features of the > 110 Ma and < 110 Ma basalts in a relatively consistent geodynamic framework. Preferential melting of recycled ancient lower continental crust during Mesozoic lithospheric thinning resulted in:

  1. peridotite-melt/fluid reaction that formed the orthopyroxene/garnet-rich mantle sources for the > 110 Ma basalts, and
  2. peridotite + rutile-bearing eclogite mixing that formed the clinopyroxene/garnet-rich mantle sources for the < 110 Ma basalts.



Mafic crustal materials, such as oceanic crust or lower arc and continental crust, can be recycled back into the convecting mantle, the former by subduction and the latter by foundering or delamination (Gao et al., 2004; Kay & Kay, 1991; Kelemen et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2006; Lustrino, 2005; Rudnick, 1995; Sobolev et al., 2007; Yuan et al., 2000). Then, because of their lower melting points (at a given pressure) compared to peridotite (Hirschmann & Stolper, 1996; Keshav et al., 2004; Pertermann & Hirschmann, 2003b; Yaxley, 2000), they can melt preferentially to produce a high-Si liquid (Rapp et al., 1999; Yaxley & Green, 1998). As this melt infiltrates peridotite, it converts olivine to pyroxene to form garnet- and pyroxene-rich lenses/veins in the peridotitic mantle (Liu et al., 2005; Rapp et al., 1999; Sobolev et al., 2005). Both melt-peridotite reaction and foundering of eclogite during subduction and/or delamination would produce garnet pyroxenite reservoirs in the mantle and influence the geochemistry of subsequent magmatism.

Case study of the North China Craton

Coupled with late Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonothermal reactivation, the ancient, cratonic mantle lithosphere of the North China Craton (NCC) is believed to have been removed from the base of the eastern block (Gao et al., 2002; Griffin et al., 1998; Menzies et al., 1993; Wu et al., 2003; Xu, 2001). Mesozoic high-Mg# adakitic lavas suggest that mafic lower continental crust had been recycled into the convecting mantle during the lithospheric thinning (Gao et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2002).

Preferential partial melting of recycled mafic crustal rocks in the mantle could lead to three types of mixing/reaction:

  1. silicic melt-peridotite reaction by equilibrium infiltration,
  2. mechanical mixing of peridotite and silicic melt by injection and freezing of melts in cold lithospheric mantle, and
  3. solid-state mechanical mixing of peridotite and the eclogitic residues after silicic melt extraction.

Mesozoic and Cenozoic basalts of varying ages were studied here to investigate these processes. The > 110 Ma and < 110 Ma basalts show contrasting trace element patterns (Figure 1). The former were characterized by island-arc-type trace element patterns, while the later have ocean-island-basalt (OIB)-type trace-element patterns.


Figure 1 CI-normalized REE patterns and PM-normalized trace-element patterns. Each line represents a basalt locality. Chondrite (CI) values from Taylor & McLennan (1985), Primitive Mantle (PM) values from McDonough & Sun (1995). Click here or on Figure for enlargment.


Contrasting Nb/Ta ratios of the > 110 Ma and < 110 Ma basalts

The > 110 Ma basalts are characterized by superchondritic Nb/Ta ratios (20.1 ± 0.3 (2σ, n = 25)), and low Nb (Ta) contents, while the < 110 Ma basalts have lower Nb/Ta ratio (15.4 ± 0.3 (2σ, n = 45)) and high Nb (Ta) contents (Figure 2). Rutile strongly partitions Nb and Ta from melt (Δ(Nb, Ta)rutile/melt >> 1), and effectively fractionates Nb from Ta (ΔNb/ΔTarutile/melt = 0.21 - 1.0; Foley et al., 2000; Green & Pearson, 1987; Klemme et al., 2005; Schmidt et al., 2004; Stalder et al., 1998; Xiong et al., 2005). The contrasting Nb/Ta ratios of the > 110 Ma and < 110 Ma basalts could be attributed to processes involving rutile.

The negative correlations between MgO and Nb and Ta, expected for partial melting of an ol + cpx + opx assemblage, indicate that both Nb and Ta are highly incompatible during mantle melting for the > 110 Ma basalts (Figure 2a). Therefore, their low Nb and Ta contents and high Nb/Ta ratios suggest low-Nb and Ta mantle sources with high Nb/Ta ratios. The positive correlations between MgO and Nb and Ta for the < 110 Ma basalts indicate that Nb and Ta are compatible during mantle melting (Figure 2a). Their constant Nb/Ta ratios, regardless of MgO contents, suggest that Nb/Ta ratios of the melts were buffered by Nb (Ta)-rich Ti-Fe oxides (e.g., rutile and ilmenite; Figure 2b).


Figure 2 Plots of MgO-Nb (Ta) and -Nb/Ta ratio and Mg#-Ni and -Cr. Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalts (MORB; PetDB) and Hawaiian OIB (Gaffney et al., 2004; Mukhopadhyay et al., 2003; Norman and Garcia, 1999) are also shown for comparison.


Peridotitic mantle metasomatized by small-degree melts of rutile-bearing eclogite would be characterized by high Nb/Ta ratios, low Nb and Ta concentrations, and low HREE abundances. In contrast, mechanical mixing of the complementary rutile-bearing eclogitic residues with deeper mantle peridotite would develop mantle garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich reservoirs with high Nb and Ta contents but low Nb/Ta ratios. In both cases, mixing or reaction with the peridotite would result in dilution of TiO2 contents such that rutile would no longer be a primary phase during partial melting of resulting hybrid sources. Subsequent re-melting of the metasomatized peridotite could have given rise to the high Nb/Ta and low Nb and Ta contents of the > 110 Ma basalts while re-melting of the peridotite-eclogite residue mixtures could have given rise to the low Nb/Ta and high Nb and Ta contents of the < 110 Ma basalts.

High Fe/Mn ratios caused by garnet-pyroxenite sources

A statistical review of previous experiments indicates that, for less than 50% melting, high Fe/Mn ratios (> 60) in “primitive” basalts point to an eclogite/pyroxenite source, while lower values suggest a peridotite source (Figure 3a). Unlike Hawaiian basalts, most of the high Fe/Mn Chinese basalts do not have high Ni, Cr and SiO2 contents (Figures 2c, d), and thus were not derived from ol-free pyroxenitic sources formed by high-Si melt-peridotite reaction (Sobolev et al., 2005). This can be resolved if the pyroxenitic sources were formed by mechanical mixing of rutile-bearing eclogite and peridotite. Such mantle sources can explain well the high Fe/Mn ratios, negative Fe/Mn-Yb (Y) correlations of the < 110 Ma basalts (Figure 3b). The good positive correlation between Sc and Yb for the < 110 Ma basalts (except for those from Caiyuan) is consistent with garnet-rich sources (Figure 3d).


Figure 3 (a) Plots of Fe/Mn ratios versus MnO contents of basaltic melts formed by partial melting of pyroxenites (Keshav et al., 2004; Kogiso & Hirschmann, 2001; Kogiso et al., 2004; Pertermann & Hirschmann, 2003a) and dry peridotites (Baker & Stolper, 1994; Falloon & Danyushevsky, 2000; Hirose & Kushiro, 1993; Laporte et al., 2004; Pickering-Witter & Johnston, 2000; Schwab & Johnston, 2001; Walter, 1998; Wasylenki et al., 2003). Products of melt-peridotite reaction and melts of high Fe/Mn peridotitic material were not compiled in (a). Hawaiian basalts (Huang et al., 2007; Humayun et al., 2004) and Iceland basalts (Qin & Humayun, 2008; Thomas Find et al., 2006) were shown for comparison. (b) Plots of Nb/Ta ratio vs. Fe/Mn ratio. (c, d) Plots of Yb vs. Sc and Fe/Mn ratio. MPRI, BMI and MMPE in (b, c) are partial melts of mixtures of peridotite + secondary pyroxenite formed by peridotite-melt reaction by infiltration (MPRI) and injection (BMI), and mechanical mixture of peridotite + eclogite (MMPE). Melting degrees are 1%, 10% and 10% for MPRI, BMI and MMPE, respectively. Each plus on the lines represents a 10% increment of pyroxenite. MMP80E are partial melts of 20% peridotite + 80% eclogite. Each circle on the line represents an increment of 10% partial melting. Fe/Mn ratio from Humayun et al. (2004) and Nb/Ta ratio from Pfänder et al. (2007) for Hawaiian OIB.


Fe/Mn ratios of the > 110 Ma basalts are still higher than MORB values (Figure 3b) and values predicted for melting of dry peridotite (Figure 3a). These observations also suggest pyroxene/garnet-rich mantle sources. Although REE patterns and low HREE contents of these > 110 Ma basalts demonstrate garnet signature (Figure 1), the negative correlation between Sc and Yb suggests that their mantle sources are pyroxene-dominated (Figure 3d). Their positive correlations between Fe/Mn ratio and HREE are inconsistent with abundant garnet in the source either (Figure 3c). These observations suggest that mantle sources for the > 110 Ma basalts could be gar-bearing opx-rich pyroxenite or veined peridotite composed of lherzolite and gar-bearing opx-rich pyroxenite.

Towards a unified model for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basalts

Those composite xenoliths found in the Cenozoic basalts (Liu et al., 2005) and Mesozoic high-Mg diorite (Chen & Zhou, 2005) in the NCC could have sampled the Mesozoic pyroxenite-veined peridotite formed by melt-peridotite reactions. Although opx-rich pyroxenite formed by the melt-rock reaction would not be significantly enriched in highly incompatible elements, low degree melting (~ 1%) of pyroxenite + peridotite mixture could produce high Nb/Ta ratios and trace element patterns of > 110 Ma basalts (Figures 3d and 4a). As an alternative, we modeled melting of mixtures of “crystallized eclogite melt” and peridotite. Injection of silicic melts into cold peridotite, in the form of a dike or grain boundary melt as well as melt-peridotite reaction, can be approximated as simple melt-solid mixing in a closed system. Because the eclogite-derived melt is enriched in highly incompatible elements compared to the peridotite wallrock, addition of a few percent melt can substantially change the incompatible element and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the mixture. Partial melts of such mixtures at a relatively high melting degree (10%) show not only the island arc-type trace element compositions (Figure 4b) and high Nb/Ta ratios (Figure 3b), but also Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the > 110 Ma basalts (Figure 4d).


Figure 4 (a) Partial melts of mixture formed by melt-peridotite reaction by infiltration (MPRI). Silicic melt was assumed to be produced by 10% partial melting of recycled lower continental crust. (b) Partial melts of mixture formed by peridotite-melt reaction by injection (BMI). (c) Partial melts of mechanical mixtures of peridotite and residual eclogite (MMPE). Peridotite was assumed to be composed of 65% ol + 15% cpx + 15% opx + 5% sp, and converted to pyroxenite (40% cpx + 30% opx + 30% gar) after addition of eclogite melt. Partial melts were simply calculated according to batch melting mode. Each thin line represents a 10% increment of secondary pyroxenite for MPRI and BMI, and eclogite for MMPE. The thick lines are maximum and minimum values of the > 110 Ma basalts in (a, b) and < 110 Ma basalts in (c). (c-f) Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of partial melts of MPRI, BMI and MMPE. Model calculations were conducted using the Xuhuai eclogite/garnet clinopyroxenite xenoliths (Wang et al., 2005) for the composition of recycled lower continental crust. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of the > 110 Ma mantle peridotites were represented by harzburgite xenoliths with the most radiogenic Nd from the 133 Ma Laiwu pyroxene-diorite (143Nd/144Nd=0.51263; Xu et al., 2003) and the average 87Sr/86Sr of continental lithospheric mantle (Pearson & Nowell, 2002). Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of the < 110 Ma mantle peridotites were represented by lherzolite xenoliths from the 22.8 Ma Hannuoba basalt (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51318, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70316; Song & Frey, 1989). Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the basalts were collected from literatures. Each plus on the lines represents a 10% increment of secondary pyroxenite for MPRI and BMI, and eclogite for MMPE.


Cpx phenocrysts with reverse zoning (i.e., high FeO, MnO, Na2O, and Al2O3 contents in the core) in the Cenozoic basalts suggest presence of crustal pyroxenite in their mantle sources (Wang et al., 2007). Melting of mechanical mixtures of rutile-bearing eclogitic residues with mantle peridotite to the point of rutile exhaustion would yield melts with features of the < 110 Ma basalts (e.g., low Nb/Ta ratios, high Fe/Mn ratios and OIB-type trace element patterns; Figures 3b and 4c). Our calculations suggest that 30-100% eclogite/garnet clinopyroxenite is required to produce the OIB-type trace element compositions of the < 110 Ma basalts for 10% partial melting (Figure 4c). Such a high eclogite/garnet clinopyroxenite proportion could be attributed to lower solidi for pyroxenite compared to peridotite. At a given pressure, eclogite-garnet clinopyroxenite will be preferentially sampled during partial melting, particularly at low melt fraction. Therefore, the net proportion of pyroxenite in the melted part of the mixture could be significantly higher than that in the whole mixture. The highly variable Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the < 110 Ma basalts can be produced by partial melting of such a mixture using the Xuhuai eclogite/garnet clinopyroxenite xenoliths as the recycled continental crust (Figure 4f). 

To summarize, we suggest that the differentiated Nb/Ta and high Fe/Mn ratios of the basalts are fingerprints of the Mesozoic delamination and foundering of deep lithosphere. The sources of the > 110 Ma basalts were garnet-bearing opx-rich pyroxenite or pyroxenite-veined peridotite formed by reaction and/or mixing between peridotite and eclogite-derived felsic melts, while the sources of the < 110 Ma basalts were mechanical mixtures of peridotite and eclogitic residues formed by the earlier stage of felsic melt extraction.


We thank G.G. Gao, B.H. Zhang, C.L. Tong and J.Q. Wang for their ICP-MS and XRF analysis work.


  • Baker M. B. and Stolper E. M. (1994) Determining the composition of high-pressure mantle melts using diamond aggregates. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 2811-2827.
  • Chen L. H. and Zhou X. H. (2005) Subduction-related metasomatism in the thinning lithosphere: Evidence from a composite duniteorthopyroxenite xenolith entrained in Mesozoic Laiwu high-Mg diorite, North China Craton. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6(Q06008), doi:10.1029/2005GC000938.
  • Falloon T. J. and Danyushevsky L. V. (2000) Melting of refractory mantle at 1.5, 2 and 2.5 GPa under anhydrous and H2O-undersaturated conditions: Implications for the petrogenesis of high-Ca boninites and the influence of subduction components on mantle melting. J. Petrol. 41, 257-283.
  • Foley S. F., Barth M. G., and Jenner G. A. (2000) Rutile/melt partition coefficients for trace elements and an assessment of the influence of rutile on the trace element characteristics of subduction zone magmas. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 933-938.
  • Gaffney A. M., Nelson B. K., and Blichert-Toft J. (2004) Geochemical constraints on the role of oceanic lithosphere in intra-volcano heterogeneity at West Maui, Hawaii. J. Petrol. 45, 1663–1687.
  • Gao S., Rudnick R. L., Carlson R. W., McDonough W. F., and Liu Y. S. (2002) Re-Os evidence for replacement of ancient mantle lithosphere beneath the North China craton. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 198, 307-322.
  • Gao S., Rudnick R. L., Yuan H. L., Liu X. M., Liu Y. S., Xu W. L., Ling W. L., Ayers J., Wang X. C., and Wang Q. H. (2004) Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton. Nature 432, 892-897.
  • Green T. H. and Pearson N. J. (1987) An experimental study of Nb and Ta partitioning between Ti-rich minerals and silicate liquids at high pressure and temperature. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51, 55-62.
  • Griffin W. L., Zhang A., O'Reilly S. Y., and Ryan C. G. (1998) Phanerozoic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Sino- Korean Craton. In Mantle Dynamics and Plate Interactions in East Asia, Vol. Geodynamics Volume, 27 (ed. M. Flower, S.L. Chung, C.H. Lo, and T.Y. Lee), pp. 107-126. American Geophysical Union.
  • Hirose K. and Kushiro I. (1993) Partial melting of dry peridotites at high pressures: Determination of compositions of melts segregated from peridotite using aggregates of diamond. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 114, 477-489.
  • Hirschmann M. M. and Stolper E. (1996) A possible role for garnet pyroxenite in the origin of the "garnet signature" in MORB. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 124, 185-208.
  • Huang S., Humayun M., and Frey F. A. (2007) Iron/manganese ratio and manganese content in shield lavas from Ko'olau Volcano, Hawai'i. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 4557-4569.
  • Humayun M., Qiu L., and Norman M. D. (2004) Geochemical evidence for excess iron in the mantle beneath Hawaii. Science 306, 91-94.
  • Kay R. W. and Kay S. M. (1991) Creation and destruction of lower continental crust. Geol. Rundsch. 80, 259-278.
  • Kelemen P. B., Hanghoj K., and Greene A. R. (2003) One view of the geochemistry of subduction-related magmatic arcs, with emphasis on primitive andesite and lower crust. In The Crust, Vol. 3 (ed. R.L. Rudnick), pp. 593-659. Elsevier.
  • Keshav S., Gudfinnsson G. H., Sen G., and Fei Y.-w. (2004) High-pressure melting experiments on garnet clinopyroxenite and the alkalic to tholeiitic transition in ocean-island basalts. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 223, 365-379.
  • Klemme S., Prowatke S., Hametner K., and Günther D. (2005) Partitioning of trace elements between rutile and silicate melts: Implications for subduction zones. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 2361–2371.
  • Kogiso T. and Hirschmann M. M. (2001) Experimental study of clinopyroxenite partial melting and the origin of ultra-calcic melt inclusions. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 142, 347-360.
  • Kogiso T., Hirschmann M. M., and Pertermann M. (2004) High-pressure partial melting of mafic lithologies in the mantle. J. Petrol. 45, 2407–2422.
  • Laporte D., Toplis M. J., Seyler M., and Devidal J. M. (2004) A new experimental technique for extracting liquids from peridotite at very low degrees of melting: application to partial melting of depleted peridotite. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 146, 463-484.
  • Lee C. T. A., Cheng X., and Horodyskyj U. (2006) The development and refinement of continental arcs by primary basaltic magmatism, garnet pyroxenite accumulation, basaltic recharge and delamination: insights from the Sierra Nevada, California. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 151, 222-242.
  • Lustrino M. (2005) How the delamination and detachment of lower crust can influence basaltic magmatism. Earth Sci. Rev. 72, 21-38.
  • McDonough W. F. and Sun S. S. (1995) The composition of the earth. Chem. Geol. 120, 223-253.
  • Menzies M. A., Fan W. M., and Zhang M. (1993) Paleozoic and Cenozoic lithoprobes and the loss of > 120 km of Archean lithosphere, Sino-Korean craton, China. In Magmatic Processes and Plate Tectonics, Vol. 76 (ed. H. M. Prichard, T. Alabaster, N. B. W. Harris, and C. R. Neary), pp. 71-81. Geol Soc Spec Pub.
  • Mukhopadhyay S., Lassiter J. C., Farley K. A., and S.W. Bogue. (2003) Geochemistry of Kauai shield-stage lavas: Implications for the chemical evolution of the Hawaiian plume. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 1009, doi:10.1029/2002GC000342.
  • Norman M. D. and Garcia M. O. (1999) Primitive magmas and source characteristics of the Hawaiian plume: petrology and geochemistry of shield picrites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 168, 27-44.
  • Pearson D. G. and Nowell G. M. (2002) The continental lithospheric mantle: characteristics and significance as a mantle reservoir Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 360, 2383-2410.
  • Pertermann M. and Hirschmann M. M. (2003a) Anhydrous partial melting experiment on MORB-like eclogites phase relations, phase composition and mineral-melt partitioning of major elements at 2-3 GPa. J. Petrol. 44, 2173-2202.
  • Pertermann M. and Hirschmann M. M. (2003b) Partial melting experiments on a MORB-like pyroxenite between 2 and 3 GPa: constraints on the presence of pyroxenites in basalt source regions. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2125, 10.1029/2000JB000118.
  • Pfänder J. A., Münker C., Stracke A., and Mezger K. (2007) Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf in ocean island basalts -- Implications for crust-mantle differentiation and the fate of Niobium. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 254, 158-172.
  • Pickering-Witter J. and Johnston A. D. (2000) The effects of variable bulk composition on the melting systematics of fertile peridotitic assemblage. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 140, 190-211.
  • Qin L. and Humayun M. (2008) The Fe/Mn ratio in MORB and OIB determined by ICP-MS. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 1660-1677.
  • Rapp R. P., Shimizu N., Norman M. D., and Applegate G. S. (1999) Reaction between slab-derived melts and peridotite in the mantle wedge: experimental constraints at 3.8 GPa. Chem. Geol. 160, 335-356.
  • Rudnick R. L. (1995) Making continental crust. Nature 378, 571-578.
  • Schmidt M. W., Dardon A., Chazot G., and Vannucci R. (2004) The dependence of Nb and Ta rutile-melt partitioning on melt composition and Nb/Ta fractionation during subduction processes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 226, 415-432.
  • Schwab B. E. and Johnston A. D. (2001) Melting Systematics of Modally Variable, Compositionally Intermediate Peridotites and the Effects of Mineral Fertility. J. Petrol. 42, 1789-1811.
  • Sobolev A. V., Hofmann A. W., Kuzmin D. V., Yaxley G. M., Arndt N. T., Chung S.-L., Danyushevsky L. V., Elliott T., Frey F. A., Garcia M. O., Gurenko A. A., Kamenetsky V. S., Kerr A. C., Krivolutskaya N. A., Matvienkov V. V., Nikogosian I. K., Rocholl A., Sigurdsson I. A., Sushchevskaya N. M., and Teklay M. (2007) The amount of recycled crust in sources of mantle-derived melts. Science 316, 412-417.
  • Sobolev A. V., Hofmann A. W., Sobolev S. V., and Nikogosian I. K. (2005) An olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts. Nature 434, 590-597.
  • Song Y. and Frey F. A. (1989) Geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths in basalt from Hannuoba, Eastern China: Implications for subcontinental mantle heterogeneity. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 97-113.
  • Stalder R., Foley S. F., Brey G. P., and Horn I. (1998) Mineral-aqueous fluid partitioning of trace elements at 900-1200°C and 3.0-5.7 GPa: New experimental data for garnet, clinopyroxene, and rutile, and implications for mantle metasomatism. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 62, 1781-1801.
  • Taylor S. R. and McLennan S. M. (1985) The continental crust: Its composition and evolution. Blackwell Scientific.
  • Thomas Find K., Kaj H., Folkmar H., Jens F., Reinhard W., and Dieter G.-S. (2006) Combined Trace Element and Pb-Nd-Sr-O Isotope Evidence for Recycled Oceanic Crust (Upper and Lower) in the Iceland Mantle Plume. J. Petrol. 47, 1705-1749.
  • Walter M. J. (1998) Melting of garnet peridotite and the origin of komatiite and depleted lithosphere. J. Petrol. 39, 29-60.
  • Wang Q. H., Xu W. L., Wang D. Y., Lin J. Q., and Gao S. (2005) Geochemical characteristics of eclogite xenoliths in Mesozoic intrusive complex from Xu-Huai area and its tectonic significance. Earth Sci. J. China University Geosci. (in Chinese with English abs.) 30, 414-420.
  • Wang W., Xu W., Wang D., Ji W., Yang D., and Pei F. (2007) Caiyuanzi Paleogene basalts and deep-derived xenocrysts in eastern Liaoning, China: constraints on nature and deep process of the Cenozoic lithospheric mantle. J. Mineral. Petrol. 27, 63-70.
  • Wasylenki L., Baker M., Kent A., and Stolper E. (2003) Near-solidus melting of the shallow upper mantle: partial melting experiments on depleted peridotite. J. Petrol. 44, 1163-1191.
  • Wu F. Y., Walker R. J., Ren X. W., Sun D. Y., and Zhou X. H. (2003) Osmium isotopic constraints on the age of lithospheric mantle beneath northeastern China. Chem. Geol. 196, 107-129.
  • Xiong X. L., Adam T. J., and Green T. H. (2005) Rutile stability and rutile/melt HFSE partitioning during partial melting of hydrous basalt: Implications for TTG genesis. Chem. Geol. 218, 339-359.
  • Xu J. F., Shinjo R., Defant M. J., Wang Q., and Rapp R. P. (2002) Origin of Mesozoic adakitic intrusive rocks in the Ningzhen area of east China: Partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust? Geology 30, 1111-1114.
  • Xu W. L., Wang D. Y., Wang Q. H., and Lin J. Q. (2003) Petrology and geochemistry of two types of mantle-derived xenoliths in Mesozoic diorite from western Shandong province. Acta Petrol. Sin. 19, 623-636.
  • Xu Y. G. (2001) Thermo-tectonic destruction of the Archaean lithospheric keel beneath the Sino-Korean craton in China: Evidence, timing and mechanism. Phys. Chem. Earth (A) 26, 747-757.
  • Yaxley G. M. (2000) Experimental study of the phase and melting relations of homogeneous basalt + peridotite mixtures and implications for the petrogenesis of flood basalts. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 139, 326-338.
  • Yaxley G. M. and Green D. H. (1998) Reactions between eclogite and peridotite: mantle refertilisation by subduction of oceanic crust. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 78, 243-255.
  • Yuan X., Sobolev S. V., Kind R., Oncken O., Bock G., Asch G., Schurr B., Graeber F., Rudloff A., Hanka W., Wylegalla K., Tibi R., Haberland C., Rietbrock A., Giese P., Wigger P., Rower P., Zandt G., Beck S., Wallace T., Pardo M., and Comte D. (2000) Subduction and collision processes in the Central Andes constrained by converted seismic phases. Nature 408, 958-961.
last updated 9th May, 2008